With the spread of the Internet and the increasing communication speed, we are entering an era of connecting people and things via the Internet. Currently, what is done by TEL is only data communication, and it will be much more convenient. This time, I would like to introduce an article about IOT.
[Internet of Things] Internet of Things / Internet of Things
IoT is not only information and communication equipment such as computers, but also various objects (things) existing in the world that have communication functions, and by connecting to the Internet or communicating with each other, automatic recognition and control, Perform remote measurement, etc.
A system that aggregates the position information of automobiles in real time and distributes traffic congestion information, a smart meter that communicates with an electric power company on behalf of a human meter reader and declares the amount of electricity used, and a sensor for large machines, etc. A system has been devised that has a built-in communication function and allows the manufacturer to grasp the operating status, failure location, parts that need to be replaced, etc. in real time.
The difference from conventional information systems is that the amount of data, processing, and communication handled by each device is small, but the number of devices is enormous, and conventional computer products are around people or specific. While they are concentrated in places (buildings and rooms), IoT devices are distributed in various places in the world.
Reflecting these characteristics, IC chips that can be produced at low cost and operate with low power consumption, software technology that aggregates and analyzes data from many devices, and controls many devices at the same time, low power consumption and long distance Research and development are underway on wireless technology that enables communication and technology that extracts minute energy from the environment (energy harvesting).
LPWA (Low Power Wide Area)
As an essential element for IoT, there is a wide area wireless communication technology that consumes less power of the device and can accommodate a large number of devices in one network, and this is collectively called "LPWA" (Low Power Wide Area). A network constructed by such a communication method is also called "LPWAN" (Low Power Wide Area Network).
In order to realize IoT, compared to conventional wide-area wireless technologies such as mobile phone networks, it can cover long distances such as tens to tens of kilometers and a wide range, and it can operate for months to years even with a scarce power source such as dry batteries. Is required. On the other hand, the high-speed data transmission capability that humans demand from communication devices such as smartphones is not always necessary, and it can be put into practical use if it is about several tens to several hundreds of kbps (kilobits per second).
A new communication method with such characteristics is called LPWA, and specific standards are "Sigfox", "LoRa", "Wi-Fi HaLow", "Wi-SUN", "LTE-M", "NB-IoT", and "RPMA". Such methods have been proposed.
Difference from M2M / sensor network
For some time, the "M2M" (Machine to Machine), which connects devices directly to each other to operate the system autonomously, and the "Sensor Network" (WSN), which enables advanced monitoring and control by distributing communicable sensors. There are concepts such as: Wireless Sensor Network), which overlap with IoT to a large extent.
However, while IoT is premised on connecting to the Internet, these technologies are often assumed to operate on a closed dedicated network or a unique protocol (communication protocol). In addition, while M2M and sensor networks often have a mechanism in which processing is completed by exchanging information between machines for a specific purpose, IoT is a system that connects connected devices with people and external information systems. Mutual relationships tend to be more important.
IoE (Internet of Everything)
In the sense of "the Internet where everything is connected," it refers to the integration of the Internet of Things and the conventional Internet centered on people, data, information, and software.
However, the difference from the conventional Internet is that many things are connected, so in practice it is often used as almost synonymous with IoT. It is a term mainly advocated by Cisco Systems, Inc. of the United States.