High-tech development is underway in various countries around the world as an educational and support tool. By using high technology, many things can be done automatically and it is possible to proceed efficiently.
High-tech industries SDGs that grow industrial GDP in developing countries-Goal 9. Let's lay the foundation for industry and technological innovation-
In developing countries, where there are many low-income earners, they are reluctant to research and develop technology due to lack of funds, and there is a lack of technological innovation.
Innovation is an important factor in increasing industrial productivity, and the SDGs are promoting the industrialization of developing countries from supporting high-tech industries.
This time, we will introduce the SDGs that promote innovation, the actual situation of high-tech industries in developing countries, and Japan's support for developing countries.
1. 1. What is SDGs Goal 9 "Let's lay the foundation for industry and technological innovation"?
SDGs, an abbreviation for "Sustainable Development Goals," are universal goals to be achieved by 2030. It was adopted by more than 150 member states at the 2015 United Nations Summit.
The agenda includes 17 goals and 169 more targets, but Goal 9 "Let's lay the foundation for industry and innovation" aims to promote industrialization and innovation. There are three targets for innovation and research:
· Promote innovation and scientific research in all countries
・ Support technology development, research and innovation in developing countries
・ Expand stable Internet access in least developed countries
* These are summaries of each target.
Research, innovation and improved Internet access are believed to contribute to the growth of the high-tech industry. The high-tech industry is one of the indispensable industries for GDP growth in developing countries because it leads to the creation of high-paying jobs and the improvement of labor productivity.
However, developing countries today do not have the soil for high-tech industries to grow. From the next chapter, we will explain in detail why high-tech industries are difficult to grow in developing countries and what they can do as developed countries.
2. 2. High-tech industry that enriches the country
In the first place, the high-tech industry is a term that refers to an industry that requires cutting-edge technology. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a high-tech industry that has five industries (aviation / space, office equipment / computer, electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, medical / precision / optical equipment) with a high ratio of R & D expenses to manufacturing value. It is said.
Since the high-tech industry requires advanced technology, it is also an index to measure the international competitiveness of science and technology.
According to OECD statistics, Japan ranked first in the high-tech industry trade balance from 1981 to 2002, when data are available, but was overtaken by South Korea in 2003, China in 2008, and sixth in 2015. Has fallen to.
Looking at the export value of the high-tech industry, China stands out at about $ 696.4 billion in 2016 OECD data, followed by the United States at about $ 378.2 billion and Germany at about $ 160 billion.
However, the high-tech fields of emerging and developing countries such as Brazil and India rely on imports, which proves to be a particularly difficult industry to grow.
3. 3. Why high-tech industries aren't growing in developing countries
Why is it difficult for high-tech industries to grow in developing countries? The background may be low investment in research and development and lack of internet access.
Reason ①. Lack of investment in research
According to data from the International Development Center of Japan (IDCJ), R & D spending as a percentage of global GDP in 2014 was 1.7%, up from 1.5% in 2000.
However, looking at the breakdown, it must be said that there is a large gap between developed and developing countries, with developed countries at 2.4% of GDP, developing countries at 1.2%, and least developed countries at 0.3%. ..
The global average number of researchers is 1,098 per million, but in the least developed countries it is only 63, compared to 3,739 in developed countries.
Productivity improvement is an important factor that closes the gap between rich and poor in Japan and closes the gap with developed countries, but if there are few R & D expenses and researchers, it is difficult for innovation to occur and it becomes difficult to improve industrial productivity. I will end up.
Reason ②. Inexperienced government support
Ideally, if a developed country causes technological innovation, it will be applied by developing countries and the level of technology will rise throughout the world.However, there are cases in which developing countries cannot accept the technology of developed countries because there are few policies to develop innovation. Many can be seen.
For example, comparing the United States and Chile in the 1900s, although there was no big difference in the number of engineers, the United States established many educational institutions, while Chile remained reluctant to invest in researchers. As a result, income is now more than doubled.
To promote innovation, not only the government but also the power of companies is needed. Contributions such as investment, competition, trade, and research by companies are required, but there is a shortage of companies actively engaged in technological innovation in developing countries.
Reason ③. Internet access
IDCJ estimates that as of 2016, 84% of the world's population is within the reach of 3G services. However, more than half of the world's people are inaccessible due to economic and capacity issues, and only 11% of all households in least developed countries have internet access.
The Internet contributes significantly to access to knowledge. You can browse treatises and research data anywhere on the planet as long as you have an internet environment, but if the penetration rate remains low, you will not be able to collect even the minimum amount of information necessary for innovation.
4. Export of Japanese-style education to developing countries
In developing countries where the growth of high-tech industries is difficult, Japan established a Japanese-style university in Egypt with Official Development Assistance (ODA) in an attempt to promote innovation from the aspect of "research."
In Egypt, the number of students going on to university is increasing due to the free national university, and the quality of education is declining due to the shortage of universities and faculty members. Especially in the field of science and engineering, there are few educational institutions and human resources in Japan, and it has developed into a situation where excellent human resources flow out of the country.
Therefore, we have been supporting since 2008 to utilize the characteristics of Japanese-style engineering education and to establish an international standard university in collaboration with 12 Japanese universities.
The established "Egypt Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST)" aims to be the highest university in the Middle East and Africa, and contributes to the development of excellent human resources who will lead the international community.
High-tech industries that require cutting-edge technology are difficult to grow in developing countries, and there is the problem that innovation is not born and industrial productivity is low.
Therefore, the SDGs advocated technological development and innovation promotion in developing countries and expansion of Internet access, and adopted them with the goal of fostering high-tech industries.
Developed countries, including Japan, are required to provide generous support to developing countries in order to achieve their goals by 2030.