How will IOT (connecting things with the Internet) spread to the world? It will become an indispensable item as it becomes more convenient. Nowadays, mobile phones are widespread, but it would be a problem if they weren't there, right? The same will happen in the future.
It is said that the IoT market will grow to $ 3 trillion in 2020, and large companies and well-known consultants are all shouting "IoT! IoT!".
The IoT seems to have nothing to do with the general public, but in reality it is slowly entering our lives in the dark.
Recently, I often hear "IoT", but what is IoT after all?
What does "Internet of Things" mean?
What kind of industry and service does IoT have?
What kind of world will the future of IoT develop?
I think there are many people who say that.
In this article, we will explain IoT, which is beginning to enter our lives, from "What is IoT?" To "Future image of IoT development" with 15 charts so that anyone can easily understand it. ..
What is IoT? The reading is "IOT" and the meaning is "IoT = PtoP x M2M"
IoT is an abbreviation for "Internet of Things" and is translated as "Internet of Things". The reading of IoT is "IOT".
IoT refers to a state in which objects with built-in sensors and communication functions are connected to all objects through the Internet, complementing each other's information and functions, and coexisting with each other. The first purpose is to collect data on the devices to be monitored and managed, grasp the status, and guide the entire system under optimal control. The second purpose is to acquire new knowledge from data accumulation and analysis, and to develop and provide new solutions.
Simply put, the ideal of the IoT is to incorporate everything in the home, workplace, and city into the Internet society, which until now consisted only of PCs and smartphones, and seamlessly exchange and utilize each other's information and functions. It is to enrich human society by doing so.
One thing to keep in mind when understanding the IoT is that it is a buzzword that has a very broad meaning. To fully understand the IoT, you first need to know the following two things.
PtoP (Person to Person): Internet for connecting people
M2M (Machine to Machine): Internet that connects Kikai
Until now, the Internet has generally been a PtoP service that "connects people" like SNS. On the other hand, there is also an area called M2M (M2M) where things are connected.
IoT can be expressed as "IoT = M2M x PtoP" in the sense that PtoP and M2M begin to overlap on the Internet.
Kenichi Ohmae, a leading consultant in Japan, explains in his book as follows.
IoT means that something with a built-in sensor is now connected by the Internet.
For example, many people think that IoT is an app that allows you to manage home appliances on your smartphone. However, home appliances with apps and sensors are only a small part of the IoT.
It is possible to put sensors in everything on the earth such as smartphones, automobiles, clothes and keys, roads, spaces, telephone poles, windows, masks, keys, soccer balls, lawns, pets, humans, whales, sea turtles. Mr. Omae explains that "IoT is the state where all things are connected to the Internet."
In other words, the state in which the entire world is connected to the Internet is the true IoT. Some are beginning to be called the IoE (Internet of Everything), which means "everything is connected to the Internet."
Three numbers to unravel the 2020 IoT market
Introducing how the IoT market will grow toward 2020.
(1) Market growth rate: 30% per year
The growth rate of IoT is said to be 30% per year. Very few markets have the potential to grow by 30% each year, so various companies are yelling "IoT! IoT!".
(2) Market size: $ 3 trillion
The IoT market is said to reach $ 3 trillion in 2020. $ 3 trillion is about the same as the sum of the top four companies by market capitalization in the world.
Apple: $ 838.5 billion
Amazon: $ 758 billion
Microsoft: $ 718.5 billion
Google: $ 707 billion
③ Number of devices: 20.8 billion
As of 2020, the number of devices connected by IoT is said to be 20.8 billion. This is a huge number, which is three times the number of communication terminals (smartphones, etc.) of 7 billion as of 2017.
Three backgrounds where IoT is attracting attention
According to Google Trends, the number of searches has been increasing all over the world since around 2013, especially in Japan and South Korea. The figure below shows the number of searches for "IoT" in Japan over the past five years.
Why is the word IoT so much attention nowadays? I will explain the three major reasons.
Background ① [Technology] Items have become smaller and cheaper
Have you ever heard the word "Moore's Law"? Moore's Law is the law that the performance of the chips built into a computer doubles every 18 months.
Doubling the performance means halving the size of the chip. In addition to chips, the parts contained in computers have become smaller and smaller in recent years. The miniaturization of electronic devices has made it possible to do things that were not possible before.
An example is a smart house. In order to build a computer in a home appliance, it is necessary to assemble a chip in a small space. In addition, it is necessary to enable wired communication such as Bluetooth, which was performed by connecting the cord.
The miniaturization of chips and the development of wireless technology are accelerating the Internet of Things represented by smart houses.
Background (2) [Market] The existing ICT market is mature and saturated
The existing ICT market refers to computer and network related industries such as information and communication. Typical examples are smartphones, the Internet, and the communication infrastructure market that supports them.
In fact, the number of smartphones and PCs sold has leveled off year by year. In other words, it is not selling well. Because everyone already has it.
Therefore, telecommunications carriers turned their attention to IoT in search of the next growth opportunity. Major mobile companies such as DoCoMo, KDDI, and Softbank have started offering corporate IoT support plans around 2015.
Until now, competition has been in the market of "communication between people", but it is changing to the market of "communication between things".
Background ③ [Society] Equipment and people are aging and aging
It has been a long time since Japan's declining birthrate and aging population have been called for, but in reality, public facilities such as roads, bridges, and water pipes are also aging. As the equipment gets older, it becomes more risky to break and needs to be repaired.
However, in Japan, where the number of workers is decreasing and the economy is slowing down and tax revenues are decreasing, it will be necessary to reduce the budget for repairing public works projects. This makes it difficult to inspect and repair equipment and build new equipment.
Therefore, there is an increasing movement to leave the inspection of equipment that people have done so far to machines.
For example, NTT DATA has developed a sensor that can be attached to a bridge and put into practical use a system that tells us whether repairs are necessary based on data such as vibration. It has already begun to be exported to various parts of the world.
In this way, there is an urgent need for IoT equipment so that it can respond even if the number of workers is reduced.
4 elements that make up IoT
The following four elements are required to configure IoT.
A device is something that goes online. You can think of cars, home appliances, roads, bridges, and various other things as devices.
② Various modules (sensors, meters, beacons)
Various modules are devices that are incorporated into devices. There are sensors, beacons and meters. The sensor gets the data it needs. The meter detects anomalies in the data obtained by the sensor and sorts out important data. Beacons wirelessly send the data sorted by the meter to the cloud.
An application is software for visualizing data. It statistically analyzes various data sent from things and expresses it in a form that is easy for people to understand.
A network is a communication facility or radio wave that connects things and the cloud. In Japan, companies such as NTT, KDDI, Softbank, and IIJ have line facilities. The network also includes wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, which connects a computer and mouse wirelessly.
Almost all things expected in IoT, such as autonomous driving and drones, need to be connected wirelessly, and it is said that "development of wireless technology is the key to IoT", so we will explain the network in detail in the next chapter. I will.
Two wireless technologies that hold the key to IoT development
The wireless technology requirements for IoT are as follows.
High speed and large capacity
Many simultaneous connections
Long life battery
We will explain "5G" and "LPWA", which are the most important wireless technologies in IoT.
Wireless technology (1) "5G" that can connect infinitely IoT-enabled things at the same time
Currently, 5G, which is expected as the next-generation communication technology of 4G (LTE) used for mobile communication, is said to be a communication technology for IoT that satisfies "many simultaneous connections," "high speed," and "low latency." I am. For example, in order to drive cars all over Japan automatically, it is necessary to constantly acquire data from all cars. That's why we need wireless technology that can connect a huge number of devices at the same time.
Wireless technology (2) "LPWA" that keeps battery life long and allows data to reach far
On the other hand, there is an area called "LPWA (Low Power, Wide Area)" that has a long battery life and can send radio waves over a wide range. For example, leaving electricity meter reading to a machine requires both battery life for at least 10 years and wireless communication to reach distant base stations. In the area of LPWA, each telecommunications company has already provided its own technology, and it will be only a matter of time before the meter reading of electricity meters is replaced by machines.
Two types of IoT "closed IoT" and "open IoT"
There are various ways of thinking about IoT. Looking at IoT from the axis of "sharing", it can be divided into "closed IoT" and "open IoT".
"Closed IoT" completed within the company
Closed IoT refers to improving the functionality of products and improving the efficiency of manufacturing processes in a closed environment only for the company. Japanese manufacturers have led the world in this closed IoT.
For example, there is a Japanese company called Komatsu, which has the second largest share of construction machinery in the world. Komatsu is a manufacturer of construction machinery such as excavators that are indispensable for construction sites, and excavators have various sensors built-in.
Komatsu can find the cause of failure and search for stolen products based on the data sent from excavator cars scattered all over the world. In addition, based on the excavator car data for each site, we have been conducting sales such as "How about another one?" At sites with high operating rates.
Komatsu's excavator car has various sensors such as GPS that can know the location information, which enables "efficient inspection", "prevention of breakdown" and "effective sales", and increases sales and is the second in the world. I climbed up to the top.
IoT creates a trendy atmosphere these days, but in the sense of "closed IoT," it has been popular for decades.
The recent IoT "smart house" is still the beginning
Before talking about open IoT, I would like to introduce some recent IoT cases. The most typical example is a smart house.
In a smart house, a computer is installed in home appliances throughout the house and can be controlled with a smartphone. In addition, it has become possible to automatically turn off the lights in places where there are no people by using motion sensors.
However, please understand that a smart house is "IoT that connects people and things." Since smartphones and home appliances are only connected, it can be said that smart houses are not limited to "Internet of Things" but "Smart Things".
"Open IoT" that connects all things and can be used freely by anyone
So what is the state of the "final chapter of the Internet of Things"?
Professor Ken Sakamura of the University of Tokyo graduate school explains open IoT as follows.
It should be regarded as a term that aims for an open infrastructure that connects things "like the Internet" beyond the boundaries of companies, organizations, buildings, houses, and ownership.
One specific example is the idea of incorporating a sensor inside a building. In the basement of a complicated terminal station, "where I am now" is not useful with conventional GPS. This is because GPS can identify the location when viewed from directly above, but cannot identify the upper and lower information such as what floor you are on. If there is a sensor inside the station, it will be possible to identify which floor you are on. In other words, it will be possible to grasp the structure of the underground mall in three dimensions, and it will be possible to provide smooth directions even at complicated terminal stations.
The Internet is said to have evolved explosively due to the "open source" of the mechanism, specifications, and technology that are open to the public for everyone to use. Like the Internet, open IoT aims to "use IoT in open infrastructure."
A chip called RFID (Radio Frequency IDentifier), which is also used to recognize relative space, is already supported by Microsoft and is a global standard. In addition, all information is open to the public at the request of the proposer, Professor Sakamura. Therefore, anyone can use this RFID to create all kinds of services.
For example, by linking an RFID chip buried in the road with a wheelchair, it is possible to drive the wheelchair automatically. In the world of open IoT, even if a wheelchair maker does not develop an automatic driving system, the RFID chip specifications are open to the public, so anyone can freely develop this system.
Open IoT will be said to be successful when "in various places," "by many people," "various services," and "freely" begin to be created.
Relationship between "IoT" and "AI" "Big Data"
So far, we have explained IoT, but many of you may have the following questions.
What is the relationship between big data and IoT?
How is AI different from IoT?
Big data is, as the name implies, a large amount of information. As things go to the Internet, more information will be available than ever before. For example, when cars around the world become self-driving cars, the amount of data sent from all cars is immeasurable.
AI is artificial intelligence. AI analyzes the data and comes up with the best solution. For example, based on a large amount of big data sent from a car, AI can control traffic lights to optimize road conditions to reduce traffic congestion.
In this way, by combining IoT with big data and AI, we can do things that humans could not do before. Big data and AI should be considered as "technical partners in utilizing IoT."
Three major issues facing IoT
The IoT market continues to grow rapidly, but it faces various challenges. In order for us to benefit from the IoT, we need to solve three major challenges.
Issue (1) [Privacy issue] Who owns the data?
The first is privacy issues.
In the IoT healthcare field, various physical data of individuals obtained from scales and urine collection will be stored in the cloud. But who does that data belong to in the first place? How far can companies that utilize it view the data? What if the data is distributed or leaked?
Issue (2) [Legal issue] Who owns the right to use the data?
The second is the issue of law.
For example, by attaching sensors to the wipers of cars nationwide, it is possible to know rainfall information in real time. In fact, Keio University attached sensors to 1,500 taxis in Nagoya to observe rain. The experiment was successful, but the problem at this time was the notification from the Japan Meteorological Agency.
"Weather information is a law that can only be handled by the Japan Meteorological Agency, so you should not handle rain information from car wiper information nationwide."
Information from 80 million cars nationwide will have an advantage in terms of immediacy and locality over the observation by the Japan Meteorological Agency. However, at present, legislation has not caught up and some institutions have monopolized the right to use data.
Issue ③ [Issue of responsibility] What if I get injured by a 3D printer product?
The third is the issue of responsibility.
3D printers are especially expected in the field of IoT. 3D printers are gaining popularity because they allow you to manufacture your favorite things at low cost. But who is responsible if you get injured with a product made with a 3D printer? Is the creator of the 3D data bad? Is it a 3D printer manufacturer? Or is it the person who did the 3D printing? Or is it the person who used it? In this way, even with the example of a 3D printer, the issue of the demarcation point of responsibility remains.
These three issues will be discussed involving companies and countries, so it will take time to resolve them.
10 IoT Use Cases
Here are 10 examples of how IoT is actually being used. I will not introduce it in detail because you can imagine what it is like by looking at the headline, but if you have any cases that interest you, please see the link.
[Wearable] You can see your heart rate, muscles, and body temperature just by putting them on your clothes.
[Wearable] Contact lenses that can control blood sugar levels
[Sports] Visualize "kick speed," "rotation speed," "flying trajectory data," etc. with a soccer ball equipped with an acceleration sensor.
[Lifestyle] Detects partner's affair with a bed with an acceleration sensor and notifies with a smartphone
[Smart city] Vending machines turned into surveillance cameras. Strengthening local crime prevention and disaster prevention
[Smart city] "Street line" that tells us the availability information of the parking lot
[Nursing care] Accelerometer detects opening and closing of doors. It is possible to confirm the safety of the elderly.
[Medical] Medical sites connected to remote areas
[Agriculture] Drone with radar automatically recognizes and sprays areas where pesticides are needed
[Self-driving car] Driverless society
If you still want to know the use cases of IoT, please take a look at the article below.
39 selections of IoT utilization cases in Japan and the world-From smart home appliances to industrial cases-
39 selections of IoT utilization cases in Japan and the world-From smart home appliances to industrial cases-
The Internet of Things is accelerating. We introduce a wide range of applications from IoT home appliances that make full use of the latest technology to smart cities and application examples in the manufacturing industry that Japan is proud of.
A future day of the IoT society
How will our human lives change in the future with advanced IoT?
The curtains open automatically when you fall asleep, and you wake up comfortably in the bright sunlight. When you open your eyes, the schedule for the day is displayed on the ceiling. When you get up from bed and go to the kitchen, breakfast is prepared according to your physical condition. I drank too much last night, so this morning I had "Shijimi Miso Soup" automatically delivered by drone from Amazon for breakfast.
When I open the door to go to work, there is an autonomous vehicle waiting there. After boarding, I arrived at the office safely by the shortest route while watching a 3D movie. The office has smart security and face recognition that automatically opens the door. When you sit at the smart desk with a built-in secretary, unread emails are automatically classified and processed, and only the most important emails are replied. Hard negotiation with Abu Dhabi executives at VR conference with automatic simultaneous translation.
Lunch is arabiata with lactic acid bacteria type nanorobot that reaches the intestines alive. A few hours later, a liver abnormality was detected by a lactic acid bacterium nanorobot, and an AI doctor advised him to stop drinking by AR phone.
Check the state of the child who goes to kindergarten even at work on the monitor. There are no alerts today to inform the elderly parents of their parents' home. Instruct the robot to clean the house and dispose of garbage from the smartphone.
After work, the smartwatch suggests a recommended restaurant that suits your mood and physical condition. Upon entering the store, the chef is informed of the ingredients, seasoning, and quantity of his choice. Toast with orange juice without ice. All ingredients can be traced on the spot, so it is safe and secure. While eating the dessert Raspberry Pi, I made a cloud-type automatic payment and left the store. He was pointed out by his shoes that he lacked exercise, and went home by walking.
By the time you get home, the bathtub is full of hot water. After intensively massaging the tired area in the bathtub and brushing your teeth with a toothbrush that detects dental caries, the bedroom is adjusted to a comfortable temperature, music that invites you to sleep comfortably plays from the wall, and the lighting gradually increases. It will fall. By the time I realized it, I was in a dream.
This article summarizes the latest IoT devices.
Future life? I summarized 21 IoT devices that will change the lives of humankind
Future life? I summarized 21 IoT devices that will change the lives of humankind
Carefully selected the latest IoT devices being developed all over the world as of 2018. Introducing various products such as home appliances and office supplies that change our lives.
Summary: Is the future that IoT will realize bright?
In Japan, the image of "company" "efficiency" is strong with respect to IoT, but in Europe and the United States, it is expected to be a field where "society" "transformation" occurs. Our future may change dramatically as things connect with each other, creating a variety of unimaginable solutions.
It is highly expected that IoT will greatly reduce the burden on humans. For example, if autonomous driving becomes mainstream thanks to sensors built into the road, the hassle of driving will be eliminated. You will be able to use that time to watch movies and work.
However, there are some negative voices. If machines take jobs from those who have worked as taxi drivers, they will have to look for new jobs. Therefore, the backlash from the taxi industry should be appropriate.
Cars were born and carriages were gone. With the birth of the Internet, a number of industries have declined. With the birth of a more convenient society realized by the IoT, many people will lose their jobs.
Also, as things are connected via the Internet, the real connection between people will fade. Is it really HAPPY x HAPPY in a society where there are fewer opportunities for humans to interact with each other?
It is clear from history that humans' desire to "live a convenient life" cannot be stopped. However, it is important to remember that the pursuit of immediate convenience does not always lead to long-term happiness. However, the IoT of society will surely accelerate. I hope that IoT will not only improve convenience, but also realize a prosperous and human-like society.