At present, the calculation speed has been greatly increased due to the progress of semiconductors. As a result, the phrase artificial intelligence has become a hot topic in recent years because it has become possible to instantly perform calculations that were performed only by theory. What kind of history does artificial intelligence have this time? I will introduce the article.
Nowadays, the term "AI ... Artificial Intelligence" has come to be used as a matter of course.
According to the May 2018 report by Accenture Co., Ltd., "The Future of Employment and Working Styles and Intelligent Technology," Japan will be short of about 9 million workers due to the advent of an aging society with a very low birthrate in 2030. It is said that it is inevitable to collaborate with artificial intelligence, such as improving human productivity by utilizing artificial intelligence and filling in the shortage of labor.
On the other hand, it has been pointed out that Japanese workers are changing their consciousness toward collaboration with artificial intelligence, delaying their actions, and having vague anxieties about artificial intelligence.
In other words, we, who live in Japan where collaboration with artificial intelligence will surely occur, are required to have a correct understanding of artificial intelligence. In this article, we will explain the definition of "artificial intelligence", the technologies used, examples of its use, and its impact on daily life.
What is artificial intelligence (AI)?
AI is an abbreviation of "Artificial Intelligence", and in the dictionary definition, it is described as "a computer system equipped with the functions of human intelligence such as learning, reasoning, and judgment." (Excerpt from Daijirin 3rd Edition)
However, from an academic point of view, the term "artificial intelligence (AI)" is ambiguous, and different people think of it differently. At present, the definition of artificial intelligence is not clearly defined even among experts.
The University of Tokyo Artificially created human-like intelligence or technology to create it
Sapporo City University
National Institute of Informatics Artificially created, intelligent reality. Or it is a field to study intelligence itself by trying to make it.
The University of Tokyo "Mecha with intelligence" or "Mecha with heart"
Hokuriku Advanced Institute of Science and Technology This is an artificially created system for intellectual behavior.
Kyoto University This is a system that simulates human brain activity to the utmost limit. A new world of intelligence created artificially
Osaka University Since the definition of intelligence is not clear, artificial intelligence cannot be clearly defined.
Future University-Hakodate Ultimately, artificial intelligence that is indistinguishable from humans.
The University of Tokyo A system that can artificially create emotional and joke-filled interactions that naturally bring us into contact with pets and people, regardless of or against the laws of physics.
Keio University A structured system for imitating, supporting, and transcending human intellectual behavior
Keio University It is an artificially created intelligence, but I imagine that the level of intelligence exceeds that of humans.
Tamagawa University Among computer intelligence, I think that the case where humans design directly or indirectly can be called artificial intelligence.
Source: Yutaka Matsuo "Does artificial intelligence surpass humans?" From P45 (partially modified according to the current enrollment status)
For example, a "computer that thinks like a human" and a "system that replaces some of human abilities" are both defined as artificial intelligence, but they have completely different functions.
Specifically, it can be classified into "specialized AI" and "general purpose AI", and "strong AI" and "weak AI".
Specialized AI refers to artificial intelligence that automatically learns and processes tasks in a limited area.
Specifically, it is artificial intelligence with technologies such as image recognition, voice recognition, and natural language processing (detailed in a later chapter). Artificial intelligence, which is currently widely used in the business domain, is specialized AI.
General-purpose AI refers to artificial intelligence that can handle various tasks in the same way as humans, rather than responding only to specific tasks.
Even if an unexpected event occurs, human beings can make a comprehensive judgment based on their experience and solve the problem. In this way, artificial intelligence with human-like problem-solving ability is general-purpose AI. At present, the method for realizing general-purpose AI has not been clarified.
In the first place, if artificial intelligence is a computer with human-like intelligence, there is also the idea that general-purpose AI is true artificial intelligence, and specialized AI is nothing more than a machine that automates problem solving.
In addition, there is a classification of strong AI and weak AI advocated by American philosopher John Searle.
Strong AI refers to artificial intelligence that has human-like self-consciousness and is capable of tasks that require full cognitive ability.
What is weak AI?
It refers to artificial intelligence that replaces only a part of human intelligence and processes only specific tasks.
"Strong AI" and "weak AI" are concepts classified from the viewpoint of "whether artificial intelligence has human consciousness and intelligence". On the other hand, "specialized AI" and "general-purpose AI" are concepts classified from the viewpoint of "problem processing" such as "can we handle a wide range of problems like humans?"
In other words, the relationship between "strong AI" and "weak AI", and "general-purpose AI" and "specialized AI" is categorized according to the viewpoint from which artificial intelligence is judged. "Strong AI" and "general-purpose AI", and "weak AI" and "specialized AI" are similar concepts with different perspectives.