2021/01/04 07:30:43 Eco

High-tech ecology

High-tech ecology

Now that IT is advancing, high-tech ecologicalization is advancing all over the world. What kind of high-tech environmental attempts are being made in various countries around the world? I would like to take a look.

Not just solar power! The latest situation of eco-friendly power generation

The world today can be called the century of electricity. After the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, it is undeniably "electricity" that supports the present civilization. It is no exaggeration to say that most of the tools used in daily life, such as televisions, personal computers, microwave ovens, and air conditioners, are powered by electricity.

The energy "electricity" that powers the electrical appliances that support our comfortable lives is mainly provided by thermal power, hydroelectric power, and nuclear power generation. However, thermal power generation emits carbon dioxide, hydroelectric power generation destroys forests caused by dams, and nuclear power carries the risk of radioactive contamination once an accident occurs.

Speaking of environmental issues, it is also fresh in my memory that the recent Hokkaido Toyako Summit discussed measures against global warming. In activities to reduce power consumption by saving electricity, the development of sites for learning about the environment and energy on the Internet and refraining from late-night convenience stores are being considered.

As efforts to address these environmental issues are underway, eco-friendly power generation, such as solar power generation and wind power generation, is attracting attention again.

So this time, let's take a closer look at eco-friendly power generation and its high-tech technology.

■ Well-known types of eco-power generation and their technologies
What are some typical eco-power generations? Also, what is the principle of power generation? I tried to summarize it briefly.

● Is a mega solar power generation facility appearing in Japan? --Solar power generation
Photovoltaic power generation (solar power generation) is a power generation method that converts the light energy of the sun into electricity by using solar cells. The principle of solar cells used in solar power generation was first discovered in 1839 by French physicist Alexandre Edmond Becquerel.

Solar cells are made by making P-type and N-type semiconductors from silicon, gallium, arsenide, etc., and combining them. When sunlight is applied to this joint surface, photons are absorbed and a pair of electrons and holes * are formed.
* A hole through which electrons have escaped in the valence band. Can be treated as positively charged particles

Since electrons are attracted to the N-type region and holes are attracted to the P-type region, the N-type region is negatively charged and the P-type region is positively charged to generate an electromotive force. If you connect electrodes to both areas, you can take out electricity.

Although the introduction cost of solar power generation is higher than that of other power generation methods, mechanical maintenance is almost free, the peak daytime power demand can be eased, and the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide can be reduced. There is a merit of.

Sharp plans to build a second solar power plant in Sakai City, Osaka in 2010 in collaboration with Kansai Electric Power Company and Sakai City. When the facility is completed, it will be able to supply about 28 megawatts of electricity and reduce CO2 emissions by 10 kilotons per year. When completed, the world's largest eye will be a solar power generation facility.

● Plans to collect wind with big sails-Wind power generation
Wind power generation is a power generation method that uses the power of the wind to turn a generator to obtain electricity. It is one of the eco-power generations that are becoming widespread all over the world because it emits less greenhouse gases and does not cost fuel for power generation.

The mechanism of power generation utilizes the nature of electric current learned in junior high school science. When the wind blows, the wind hits the blades of the wind turbine, and the rotational energy of the blades is converted into electricity by the generator. The generator uses the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, which generates electric power by rotating a magnet in a coil.

Many people think of a large windmill when it comes to wind power generation, but a large-scale power generation method has also been devised in which a large sail is set up in the valley to collect the wind and turn the central power generation turbine.

● Generate electricity at volcanoes-Geothermal power generation
Geothermal power generation is a power generation method that uses geothermal heat from volcanic activity. Since it is not a depleting energy like the above-mentioned solar power generation and wind power generation, it is attracting attention as one of the measures against global warming.

The most common type of geothermal power generation, steam power generation, uses steam produced by the thermal energy of magma to turn a turbine to generate electricity.

When only hot water can be obtained due to low temperature and pressure, the hot water is used to boil a medium with a boiling point lower than that of water (ammonia, pentane, freon, etc.) and turn a turbine to generate electricity. A power generation method called is used.

■ Eco-power generation with the latest high-tech
What kind of eco-power generation uses modern high-tech technology? I summarized it in an easy-to-understand manner along with the technology.

● Waste becomes electricity-biomass power generation
There are several types of biomass power generation, but the most obvious is woody biomass power generation.
Woody biomass power generation is a power generation method that uses offcuts and non-standard wood discharged in the process of wood production in the forestry as fuel to generate electricity. Carbon dioxide is emitted when wood is burned, but since the wood is about the same as the carbon dioxide absorbed in the forest, the total carbon dioxide emissions are considered to be almost zero.

Biomass gasification power generation is a power generation method that uses the power of microorganisms to burn the gas generated when kitchen waste is decomposed to obtain electricity. The hot spring facility "Oedo Onsen Monogatari" in Tokyo has signed a lease contract for a small biomass gasification power generation device, and is said to generate up to 60 kilowatts a day.

● Power can be generated even with clogs-Power generation with sound and vibration
The Goshikizakura Bridge over the Arakawa River on the Metropolitan Expressway can be enjoyed with beautiful illuminations in the evening, but some of these illuminations are generated by using the vibrations of automobiles running on the Metropolitan Expressway.

Special elements called "piezoelectric elements" are used in speakers, inkjet printers, and sensors. Piezoelectric elements have the property of generating voltage when vibration or pressure is applied, and conversely expanding and contracting when voltage is applied. In other words, electric power can be obtained by giving vibration and sound.

"Power generation clogs" using this element can generate power just by walking, and can illuminate the light emitting diode attached to the back side of the clogs.

All of the eco-power generation introduced this time is a type of renewable energy, and it can be said that it is an energy that needs attention from now on because it does not affect the soaring price of depleting energy and can be used as a countermeasure against global warming. ..