What should we do to coexist with the environment and nature? I will consider the environment as seen from a natural disaster.
Natural disasters in Japan
In recent years, natural disasters such as the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, the Kumamoto Earthquake in 2016, and the heavy rains in western Japan in 2018 have occurred frequently. In the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, about 6,500 people were dead or missing, and the economic loss was about 9.9 trillion yen. In the Great East Japan Earthquake, the number of dead or missing people was about 23,000, and the economic loss was about 16.9 trillion yen. was there.
In addition to human life, natural disasters will cause enormous damage to the local economy, livelihoods of residents, urban infrastructure, and administrative functions, and enormous time and cost will be required for restoration and reconstruction. "Disaster prevention / mitigation", which is how to minimize the damage caused by such disasters, and how to efficiently and effectively prepare the living infrastructure of residents and achieve "reconstruction" in a short period of time will continue to be high. Considering the Nankai Trough earthquake, which is expected to occur with probability, it can be said that this is an unavoidable issue in Japan.
Importance of "pre-reconstruction"
Reconstruction does not mean returning to the state before the disaster. At the same time as the disaster, a large number of residents may hesitate to live in the disaster area, and it is necessary to proceed with reconstruction while bearing the negative impact of a rapid population outflow. In order to regain the original bustle, it is necessary not only to restore the pre-disaster industry, but also to create new industries and innovations beyond the framework of existing industries. So to speak, it is an effort to change negatives into positives. Only when we reach that point can we say that we have achieved sustainable reconstruction.
Deloitte Tohmatsu believes that the following four factors are important for "reconstruction" from a disaster as a result of numerous reconstruction assistance efforts.
"Reconstruction of industry" as a pair of regional industries and new industries created in 2 to 4 below
"Reconstruction of people and companies" such as revitalization of businesses that provide workplaces for residents and training of management personnel
"Reconstruction of local communities" that creates connections between people
"Reconstruction of infrastructure and hardware" related to daily life that people need in their daily lives
In the reconstruction project, 4. Infrastructure and hardware make it easy to grasp the current situation and the progress of reconstruction, but in 1 to 3, it takes a lot of time and money to grasp the current situation, and it is difficult to grasp the progress. Compared to infrastructure and hardware, elements such as "local community", "people / companies", and "industry" are difficult to visualize, and it can be said that it is difficult to accurately grasp the actual situation even in normal times.
In the field of disaster recovery facing such issues, the importance of "pre-reconstruction" is drawing attention. The core of this is gathering information to grasp the actual situation of the area in case of a disaster and formulating a plan to appropriately allocate limited resources. I would like to raise the possibility that such "pre-reconstruction" efforts will be the starting point for building smart cities.
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Utilization of smart cities for "disaster prevention / mitigation" and "preliminary reconstruction"
Utilizing smart cities for "disaster prevention / mitigation" and "preliminary reconstruction" means integrated management of dynamic / static information related to the above-mentioned infrastructure / hardware, communities, people / companies, industries, etc. It refers to connecting and utilizing that information. By implementing these efforts, we believe that "disaster prevention / mitigation" that minimizes the damage caused by disasters and "reconstruction" that is efficient and effective can be realized.
For example, from the perspective of "disaster prevention / mitigation", detailed topographical information possessed by the government, real-time information from sensors installed in various infrastructures, telematics information, information on visitors and residents (number of people, location, people flow data), etc. There is a mechanism to realize appropriate evacuation site allocation and guidance by combining.
In addition, from the perspective of "reconstruction," if it is possible to accurately grasp how much people, businesses, and communities have been damaged by a disaster based on various data and information provided by residents, early start of reconstruction will be started. Hands can be prioritized, enabling efficient and effective reconstruction. By sharing information about who is thinking, how they are trying to recover, and what they are doing now in the affected companies and communities, we can expect acceleration of recovery and revitalization of industry. Specific examples include optimization of energy use, shared use of equipment, and diagnosis of stores and services required by disaster-stricken areas using AI.
In this way, in order to carry out reconstruction efficiently and effectively while minimizing the damage caused by disasters, smart cities will be involved in infrastructure, hardware, communities, people / companies, industries, etc. even before the disaster. It may be the best way to overcome future disasters by preparing information and promoting information sharing beyond the boundaries of the public and private sectors after the disaster.